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P.R.O. Model Prevention. Response. Options.

Developed by Active Shooter Prevention Project, LLC

Contracted by the US Department of Justice

A NEW Standard in Active Shooter Prevention

Welcome to the P.R.O. Model, a cutting-edge training program that puts prevention at the forefront of active shooter preparedness.

Developed in collaboration with the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys of the U.S. Department of Justice, the P.R.O. Model emphasizes the importance of the 4 Ps: Place, People, Perpetrator, Police in active shooter prevention and response. This comprehensive approach ensures that individuals, organizations, and communities are equipped to proactively protect themselves in the event of an active shooter situation.

The P.R.O. Model, which stands for Prevention, Response, and Options, is a comprehensive strategy focusing on preventing active shooter incidents before they happen. This model recognizes that preventing acts of violence is not solely the responsibility of law enforcement but rather a community effort that involves all sectors of society, including government, education, mental health, and private enterprise.


The Prevention component of P.R.O. covers a comprehensive threat assessment and intervention program. The efforts encompass community outreach and awareness, training for educators, mental health professionals, and community leaders, as well as the establishment of early warning systems to identify and assist individuals who are at risk. It also includes the implementation of best practices for schools, houses of worship, the health care industry, and corporate workplace safety including all hazard assessments for active shooter scenarios, tabletop exercises, and all-encompassing planning and training.

Chris Grollnek, active shooter expert-prevention-Active-Shooter-Prevention-Project


The Response component of P.R.O. addresses the importance of understanding, the place of the event, the people inside the event, the perpetrator, and the police. This is what we call the 4 Ps.

  • Place: Assess a location’s strengths and weaknesses, including situational awareness, and provide advisory services based on assessments and support in fortifying the location.
  • People: Train and equip individuals to act as first responders in emergency situations, as police response will take up to eight minutes and incidents typically resolve within that time frame.
  • Police: Educate both the community and the police on the time frame of police arrival in emergency situations, specifically focusing on the reality that in active shooter incidents, police traditionally do not make contact with the first victim for 23 minutes and prioritize locating and neutralizing the shooter before providing aid. Emphasize the importance of individuals knowing how to react, escape, and survive until police arrive, as incidents typically resolve within eight minutes.
  • Perpetrator: Acquire the skills to recognize signs of potential active shooters and understand the significance of “leakage,” as 75% of active shooters have communicated their intentions to someone who failed to report or act on the information. Explore the opportunities for reporting and taking steps to prevent acts of violence through the mitigation of knowledge about potential perpetrators.

The Response component of the P.R.O. Model is essential for organizations to quickly and effectively respond to emergency situations. However, it is equally important for organizations to invest in the Investigations component of the model to proactively identify potential threats and prevent them from escalating into violent incidents.

By conducting thorough investigations and putting together intelligence, organizations can gain insight into the behavior and patterns of potential perpetrators. This information can be used to inform the training and education programs provided under the People component of the Response strategy. Additionally, investigations can help identify potential weaknesses in a location’s physical security measures, which can be addressed under the Place component of the Response strategy.

By combining the investigations and response strategies, organizations can develop a comprehensive plan for preventing and responding to violent incidents. The goal is to provide a proactive and coordinated approach that maximizes the effectiveness of available resources and minimizes the impact of violent incidents on individuals and the organization as a whole.


The Options component of the P.R.O. Model is all about assessing what resources and solutions are available to an organization and determining which ones will work best for them. This covers a range of options, including technology systems such as notifications and AI-powered gun detection, physical security measures such as ballistic devices, metal detectors, and cameras, as well as training and education programs. The goal is to provide organizations with a range of options that can help them prevent violence, respond quickly, and protect people.

active-shooter-full-scale-exercises-Chris Grollnek, active shooter expert-prevention-Active-Shooter-Prevention-Project

Overall, the P.R.O. Model is a comprehensive approach to addressing the threat of active shooter incidents and other acts of violence. By focusing on Prevention, Response, and Options, organizations can create a culture of safety and security that makes it less likely that an active shooter event will occur and more likely that people will be protected in the event that one does.

The P.R.O. Model represents a significant shift in thinking around active shooter prevention, moving away from a reactive, fear-based approach and towards a proactive, prevention-focused strategy. It is our hope that the P.R.O. Model will be widely adopted across the country and that it will serve as a catalyst for real change in the way we approach active shooter prevention. With the P.R.O. Model, we can work together as a community to create a safer and more resilient society for all.

Be Prepared. Not Scared.


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