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Article written by Daryl Parker

Investigation is not just about gathering information; it’s also about analyzing that information to produce actionable intelligence. By looking at past incidents, developing metrics to evaluate suspects and their activities and conducting specific fieldwork, investigators can attempt to assess the threat posed by a specific individual. This approach can be helpful in predicting behavior, and potentially preventing dangerous situations.

But how can investigators ensure they are conducting effective investigations and gathering the right information? That’s where the P.R.O. Model comes in. Prevention. Response. Options.

The P.R.O. Model includes a framework for conducting investigations that emphasizes the importance of being proactive.

In the Prevention component of the P.R.O. Model, investigations play a crucial role in identifying and assessing potential threats before they become dangerous situations. Early warning systems can be established to identify and assist individuals who may be at risk, allowing for timely intervention and support to prevent escalation.

The implementation of best practices and training programs can also help organizations prepare for and prevent active shooter incidents by conducting all hazard assessments, tabletop exercises, and comprehensive planning and training. Through a multi-faceted approach, organizations can work towards creating a safer environment for all and preventing violence before it occurs. Investigations are an essential tool in this process, providing valuable intelligence and insights that can help prevent dangerous situations and protect the community.

Even with the best preventive measures in place, incidents can still occur. With the P.R.O. model, we highly encourage having a plan in place for responding to these types of incidents. This can involve training employees on how to respond to emergencies, developing a crisis management plan, and establishing communication protocols. The Response component of the P.R.O. Model emphasizes the importance of understanding the place, people, perpetrator, and police in emergency situations. These are known as the 4 Ps.

Place: The focus is on assessing a location’s strengths and weaknesses, including situational awareness, and providing advisory services based on assessments to fortify the location.

People: The goal is to train and equip individuals to act as first responders in emergency situations. Police response can take up to eight minutes, and incidents usually resolve within that time frame, making it crucial for individuals to be prepared.

Perpetrator: Understanding the significance of “leakage” is crucial in recognizing potential active shooters. 75% of active shooters have communicated their intentions to someone who failed to report or act on the information. Therefore, exploring opportunities for reporting and taking steps to prevent acts of violence through the timely and comprehensive analysis of the prospective perpetrator’s communications is crucial.

Police: It’s essential to educate both the community and the police on the time frame of police arrival in emergency situations, especially in active shooter incidents. Police typically do not make contact with the first victim for 23 minutes and prioritize locating and neutralizing the shooter before providing aid. Individuals must know how to react, escape, and survive until police arrive.

The Options component of the P.R.O. Model involves evaluating the available resources and solutions for an organization and selecting the best ones to meet their unique needs. These options may include various technology systems such as AI-powered gun detection and notification systems, physical security measures like ballistic devices, metal detectors, and cameras, as well as training and education programs. The aim is to equip organizations with a diverse set of options that can aid in violence prevention, prompt response, and ensuring the safety of individuals.

By following the P.R.O. Model, individuals, teams, and entire communities can work together to prevent active shooter situations from occurring and to respond effectively if they do. We understand the importance of being proactive in our approach, and we work tirelessly to identify and address potential threats before they escalate.

In conclusion, investigation and intelligence gathering are crucial in preventing dangerous situations. By using the P.R.O. Model, investigators can conduct more effective investigations and take proactive measures to minimize potential threats.

About Daryl Parker
Daryl Parker is a retired Chief Warrant Officer 3 of the US Marine Corps and a former police officer in Texas, with over 20 years of experience in law enforcement and private investigations. He is the President of Blackfish Intelligence, a leading private investigations firm in the US. Daryl is a board-certified criminal defense investigator, a nationally recognized firearms expert, and a licensed private investigator. He has been featured in various media outlets, including The Atlantic magazine and 48 Hours.

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